This page contains all the resources used in lessons for Topic 1 as well any others I feel you may find useful. Alongside each topic is also a description of what you are expected to know, this has been taken directly from the specification.
Topic 1- Building Blocks of Cells
Plant and Animal Cells
Describe the function of the components of a bacterial cell including chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, flagella and cell wall.
Describe the function of the components of a plant cell
including chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall, cell membrane,mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus.
Describe the function of the components of an animal cell including cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus.
Describe how plant and animal cells can be studied in greater detail with a light microscope.
Demonstrate an understanding of how changes in microscope technology have enabled us to see cells with more clarity and detail than in the past, including simple magnification calculations.
DNA and DNA Extraction
Recall that a gene is a section of a molecule of DNA and that it codes for a specific protein.
Describe a DNA molecule as:
a) two strands coiled to form a double helix
b) strands linked by a series of complementary base pairs joined together by weak hydrogen bonds:
i adenine (A) with thymine (T)
ii cytosine (C) with guanine (G)
Investigate how to extract DNA from cells.
Explain how the structure of DNA was discovered, including the roles of the scientists Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins.
The Human Genome Project
Demonstrate an understanding of the implications of
sequencing the human genome (Human Genome Project) and of the collaboration that took place within this project
Describe how the order of bases in a section of DNA decides the order of amino acids in the protein
Demonstrate an understanding of the stages of protein
synthesis, including transcription and translation:
a) the production of complementary mRNA strand in the
b) the attachment of the mRNA to the ribosome
c) the coding by triplets of bases (codons) in the mRNA
for specific amino acids
d) the transfer of amino acids to the ribosome by tRNA
e) the linking of amino acids to form polypeptides
Describe each protein as having its own specific number and sequence of amino acids, resulting in different-shaped molecules that have different functions, including enzymes.
Demonstrate an understanding of how gene mutations change the DNA base sequence and that mutations can be harmful, beneficial or neither.
Demonstrate an understanding of the process of genetic
engineering, including the removal of a gene from the DNA of one organism and the insertion of that gene into the DNA of another organism
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetic
engineering to produce GM organisms, including:
a) beta carotene in golden rice to reduce vitamin A deficiency in humans
b) the production of human insulin by genetically modified bacteria
c) the production of herbicide-resistant crop plants
Describe the division of a cell by mitosis as the production of two daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes in thenucleus to the parent cell, and that this results in the formation of two genetically identical diploid body cells
Recall that mitosis occurs during growth, repair and asexual reproduction
Recall that, at fertilisation, haploid gametes combine to form a diploid zygote
Describe the division of a cell by meiosis as the production of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically different haploid gametes
Cloning and Stem Cells
Recall that cloning is an example of asexual reproduction that produces genetically identical copies
Demonstrate an understanding of the stages in the
production of cloned mammals, including:
a) removal of diploid nucleus from a body cell
b) enucleation of egg cell
c) insertion of diploid nucleus into enucleated egg cell
d) stimulation of the diploid nucleus to divide by mitosis
e) implantation into surrogate mammals
Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages, disadvantages and risks of cloning mammals
Recall that stem cells in the embryo can differentiate into all other types of cells, but that cells lose this ability as the animal matures
Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages, disadvantages and risks arising from adult and embryonic stem cell research
Describe enzymes as biological catalysts
Demonstrate an understanding that enzymes catalyse chemical ,reactions occurring inside and outside living cells, including:
a) DNA replication
b) protein synthesis
Describe the factors affecting enzyme action, including:
b) substrate concentration
Recall that enzymes are highly specific for their substrate
Demonstrate an understanding of the action of enzymes in terms of the ‘lock-and-key’ hypothesis
Describe how enzymes can be denatured due to changes in the shape of the active site
Investigate the factors that affect enzyme activity